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Sat Mar 16 16:26:50 PDT 2024

Psychology Research News -- ScienceDaily


( How fear unfolds inside our brains
Mar 14th 2024, 14:53

The stress-induced mechanisms that cause our brain to produce feelings of fear in the absence of threats -- such as in PTSD -- have been mostly a mystery. Now, neurobiologists have identified the changes in brain biochemistry and mapped the neural circuitry that cause generalized fear experiences.

( Blast-related concussions linked to higher Alzheimer's risk
Mar 13th 2024, 21:02

U.S. veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq who suffered mild traumatic brain injury from exposure to explosive blasts were found to have changes in cerebrospinal fluid proteins that are typically seen in people who develop Alzheimer's disease, according to researchers.

( Interactions with dogs can increase brainwaves associated with stress relief and heightened concentration
Mar 13th 2024, 18:50

Spending quality time with dogs reduces stress and increases the power of brain waves associated with relaxation and concentration, according to a new study.

( Researchers identify brain connections associated with ADHD in youth
Mar 13th 2024, 13:55

Researchers have discovered that symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are tied to atypical interactions between the brain's frontal cortex and information processing centers deep in the brain. The researchers examined more than 10,000 functional brain images of youth with ADHD.

( Researchers expand our understanding of how the body and brain communicate
Mar 12th 2024, 13:37

Researchers investigating how exactly the brain processes the incoming stream of information from the heart and lungs, discovered that specific neurons in the thalamus are actively involved in processing cardiac and respiratory signals.

( For people who speak many languages, there's something special about their native tongue
Mar 11th 2024, 14:59

A study of polyglots found the brain's language network responds more strongly when hearing languages a speaker is more proficient in -- and much more weakly to the speaker's native language.

( Happiness can be learnt, but you have to work at it
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

We can learn to be happy, but only get lasting benefits if we keep practicing, a new study has revealed.

( Researchers identify gene involved in neuronal vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

Early stages of neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of proteins in discrete populations of brain cells and degeneration of these cells. For most diseases, this selective vulnerability pattern is unexplained, yet it could yield major insight into pathological mechanisms.

( Shared blueprint in brain development across different functional areas
Mar 11th 2024, 14:57

Researchers have investigated brain development to understand how different areas of the brain become specialized in handling information such as vision, sound, touch and planning.

( Brain waves travel in one direction when memories are made and the opposite when recalled
Mar 8th 2024, 12:33

These wide-ranging waves quickly link the specific constellations of brain regions that work in harmony to perform a task.

( Lack of focus doesn't equal lack of intelligence -- it's proof of an intricate brain
Mar 8th 2024, 12:29

Imagine a busy restaurant: dishes clattering, music playing, people talking loudly over one another. It's a wonder that anyone in that kind of environment can focus enough to have a conversation. A new study provides some of the most detailed insights yet into the brain mechanisms that help people pay attention amid such distraction, as well as what's happening when they can't focus.

( How the brain coordinates speaking and breathing
Mar 7th 2024, 16:51

Researchers discovered a brain circuit that drives vocalization and ensures that you talk only when you breathe out, and stop talking when you breathe in. This circuit is under control of a brainstem region called the pre-B tzinger complex.

( Does iron accumulate in brain after concussions?
Mar 7th 2024, 11:07

People who have headaches after experiencing concussions may also be more likely to have higher levels of iron in areas of the brain, which is a sign of injury to brain cells, according to a preliminary study released today, March 5, 2024, that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 76th Annual Meeting taking place April 13--18, 2024, in person in Denver and online.

( Virtual reality exposure plus electric brain stimulation offers a promising treatment for PTSD
Mar 6th 2024, 20:31

Combining two treatments could be a promising option for people, especially military veterans, whose lives are negatively affected by post-traumatic stress disorder, finds a new study. In a clinical trial conducted among U.S. military veterans, participants who received brain stimulation with a low electrical current during sessions of virtual reality exposure reported a significant reduction in PTSD symptom severity.

( A noninvasive treatment for 'chemo brain'
Mar 6th 2024, 15:07

A noninvasive treatment may help to counter 'chemo brain' impairment often seen in chemotherapy patients: Exposure to light and sound with a frequency of 40 hertz protected brain cells from chemotherapy-induced damage in mice, researchers found.

( New microscopy tech answers fundamental questions
Mar 6th 2024, 15:05

A new tool captures data from an unprecedented 1 million neurons simultaneously, painting a much fuller picture of brain dynamics.

( Opening a window on the brain
Mar 4th 2024, 13:58

Researchers have introduced a new method for in vivo brain imaging, enabling large-scale and long-term observation of neuronal structures and activities in awake mice. This method is called the 'nanosheet incorporated into light-curable resin' (NIRE) method, and it uses fluoropolymer nanosheets covered with light-curable resin to create larger cranial windows.

( Your brain in the zone: A new neuroimaging study reveals how the brain achieves a creative flow state
Mar 4th 2024, 13:58

A new neuroimaging study reveals how the brain gets to the creative flow state.

( Link between adversity, psychiatric and cognitive decline
Mar 1st 2024, 13:47

Scientists have been examining the relationship between childhood adversity, and psychiatric decline as well as adult adversity and psychiatric and cognitive decline.

( Tiny magnetic particles in air pollution linked to development of Alzheimer's
Feb 29th 2024, 18:29

Magnetite, a particle found in air pollution, can induce signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests.

( Continued cocaine use disrupts communication between major brain networks
Feb 28th 2024, 15:47

New research provides new insights into the brain processes underlying cocaine addiction. The findings are crucial for developing new therapeutics and identifying an imaging marker for cocaine use disorders.

( Molecular clusters on glial cells show they are more than our brain's 'glue'
Feb 28th 2024, 13:20

Researchers report that a single glial cell uses different molecules to communicate with different neurons. Careful clustering of these molecules ensures that the glial cell can conduct a distinct 'conversation' with each neuron. Through these molecular facilitators, glia can influence how neurons respond to environmental cues like temperature and smell.

( Neurons help flush waste out of brain during sleep
Feb 28th 2024, 11:55

Researchershave found that brain cell activity during sleep is responsible for propelling fluid into, through and out of the brain, cleaning it of debris.

( In fight against brain pathogens, the eyes have it
Feb 28th 2024, 11:55

The eyes have been called the window to the brain. It turns out they also serve as an immunological barrier that protects the organ from pathogens and even tumors, researchers have found. In a new study, researchers showed that vaccines injected into the eyes of mice can help disable the herpes virus, a major cause of brain encephalitis. To their surprise, the vaccine activates an immune response through lymphatic vessels along the optic nerve.

( Could we assess autism in children with a simple eye reflex test?
Feb 28th 2024, 11:54

Scientists may have discovered a new way to test for autism by measuring how children's eyes move when they turn their heads.

( More than just neurons: A new model for studying human brain inflammation
Feb 28th 2024, 11:53

Scientists have created a novel organoid model of the human brain that contains astrocytes -- which have been excluded from other models thus far -- to study inflammation in diseases like Alzheimer's. Using this model, they have already found a potentially druggable target to disrupt inflammation in the brain.

( Addressing societal concerns of genetic determinism of human behavior by linking environmental influences and genetic research
Feb 27th 2024, 17:21

In a new perspective article, researchers underscore the importance of integrating environmental effects into genetic research. The authors discuss how failure to do so can perpetuate deterministic thinking in genetics, as historically observed in the justification of eugenics movements and, more recently, in cases of racially motivated violence.

( New study links placental oxygen levels to fetal brain development
Feb 27th 2024, 17:21

A new study shows oxygenation levels in the placenta, formed during the last three months of fetal development, are an important predictor of cortical growth (development of the outermost layer of the brain or cerebral cortex) and is likely a predictor of childhood cognition and behavior.

( Learning and memory problems in down syndrome linked to alterations in genome's 'dark matter'
Feb 27th 2024, 13:07

The activity of Snhg11, a gene found in the 'dark matter' of the genome, is critical for the function and formation of neurons in the hippocampus, specifically in an area critical for learning and memory. Researchers have discovered the gene is less active in brains with three copies of chromosome 21, which causes Down syndrome, potentially contributing to the condition's intellectual disabilities. The researchers plan on carrying out further research to discover the exact mechanisms of action involved, information that could open potential avenues for new therapeutic interventions.

( Long-term memory and lack of mental images
Feb 27th 2024, 13:01

When people lack visual imagination, this is known as aphantasia. Researchers investigated how the lack of mental imagery affects long-term memory. They were able to show that changes in two important brain regions, the hippocampus and the occipital lobe, as well as their interaction, have an influence on the impaired recall of personal memories in aphantasia.

( Gut-brain communication turned on its axis
Feb 26th 2024, 20:47

The mechanisms by which antidepressants and other emotion-focused medications work could be reconsidered due to an important new breakthrough in the understanding of how the gut communicates with the brain. New research has uncovered major developments in understanding how the gut communicates with the brain, which could have a profound impact on the make-up and use of medications such as antidepressants.

( Live music emotionally moves us more than streamed music
Feb 26th 2024, 20:45

How does listening to live music affect the emotional center of our brain? A study has found that live performances trigger a stronger emotional response than listening to music from a device. Concerts connect performers with their audience, which may also have to with evolutionary factors.

( Intervention reduces likelihood of developing postpartum anxiety and depression by more than 70%
Feb 26th 2024, 20:42

Results from a large clinical trial show that an intervention for anxiety provided to pregnant women living in Pakistan significantly reduced the likelihood of the women developing moderate-to-severe anxiety, depression, or both six weeks after birth.

( Yoga provides unique cognitive benefits to older women at risk of Alzheimer's disease
Feb 26th 2024, 11:46

A new study found Kundalini yoga provided several benefits to cognition and memory for older women at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease including restoring neural pathways, preventing brain matter decline and reversing aging and inflammation-associated biomarkers -- improvements not seen in a group who received standard memory training exercises.

( First-in-humans discovery reveals brain chemicals at work influencing social behavior
Feb 26th 2024, 11:46

The idea that people make decisions based on social context is not a new one in neural economic games. But now, for the first time, researchers show the impact of the social context may spring from the dynamic interactions of dopamine and serotonin. Researchers built carbon-fiber electrodes that were implanted in patients receiving Deep Brain Stimulation surgery. The method allows researchers to measure more than one neurotransmitter at a time, revealing a dance that has never been seen before.

( Revolutionary brain stimulation technique shows promise for treating brain disorders
Feb 25th 2024, 21:25

The human brain's adaptability to internal and external changes, known as neural plasticity, forms the foundation for understanding cognitive functions like memory and learning, as well as various neurological disorders. Scientists have now unveiled a novel technique that could transform the treatment landscape for brain disorders. The team developed a non-invasive brain stimulation method called Patterned Low-Intensity Low-Frequency Ultrasound (LILFUS), which holds tremendous potential for inducing long-lasting changes in brain function.

( Hearing relaxing words in your sleep slows your heart down
Feb 23rd 2024, 10:38

Researchers have investigated whether the body is truly disconnected from the external world during sleep. To do so, they focused on how heartbeat changes when we hear different words during sleep. They found that relaxing words slowed down cardiac activity as a reflection of deeper sleep and in comparison to neutral words that did not have such a slowing effect. This discovery sheds new light on brain-heart interactions during sleep.

( Cracking the code of neurodegeneration: New model identifies potential therapeutic target
Feb 22nd 2024, 12:24

Scientists have developed an innovative neural cell culture model, shedding light on the intricate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Their research pinpointed a misbehaving protein as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

( New insight into gene uncovers its link to incurable birth defect
Feb 22nd 2024, 12:23

Researchers have unraveled how mutations in a gene can lead to an incurable neurodevelopmental disorder that causes abnormal brain development in newborns and infants.

( Uncovering anxiety: Scientists identify causative pathway and potential cures
Feb 22nd 2024, 12:23

Quick-acting targeted therapies with minimal side effects are an urgent need for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. While delta opioid receptor (DOP) agonists have shown 'anxiolytic' or anxiety-reducing effects, their mechanism of action is not well-understood. A new study highlights the role of specific neuronal circuits in the brain involved in the development of anxiety, and distinct mechanisms of action of the therapeutic DOP agonist -- KNT-127.

( Researchers use deep brain stimulation to map therapeutic targets for four brain disorders
Feb 22nd 2024, 12:23

A new study demonstrated the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to map a 'human dysfunctome' -- a collection of dysfunctional brain circuits associated with different disorders.

( Living in violent neighborhoods affects children's brain development
Feb 22nd 2024, 12:18

Living in neighborhoods with high levels of violence can affect children's development by changing the way that a part of the brain detects and responds to potential threats, potentially leading to poorer mental health and other negative outcomes, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

( Air pollution linked to more signs of Alzheimer's in brain
Feb 21st 2024, 21:38

People with higher exposure to traffic-related air pollution were more likely to have high amounts of amyloid plaques in their brains associated with Alzheimer's disease after death, according to a new study. Researchers looked at fine particulate matter, PM2.5, which consists of pollutant particles of less than 2.5 microns in diameter suspended in air.

( How does the brain make decisions?
Feb 21st 2024, 16:03

Mouse study provides insights into communication between neurons during decision-making.

( 'Movies' with color and music visualize brain activity data in beautiful detail
Feb 21st 2024, 16:02

Complex neuroimaging data can be explored through translation into an audiovisual format -- a video with accompanying musical soundtrack -- to help interpret what happens in the brain when performing certain behaviors.

( Fixing rogue brain cells may hold key to preventing neurodegeneration
Feb 20th 2024, 20:33

Scientists have identified a new therapeutic approach for combating neurodegenerative diseases, offering hope of improved treatments for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Vanishing White Matter disease and multiple sclerosis, among others.

( Mapping potential pathways to MND treatment
Feb 20th 2024, 14:46

Researchers have mapped out the proteins implicated in the early stages of motor neurone disease (MND). They have developed a longitudinal map of the proteins involved in MND across the trajectory of the disease, identifying potential therapeutic pathways for further investigation.

( Modifying brain molecule relaxin-3 can potentially reduce side effects in treating anxiety, depression and more
Feb 20th 2024, 14:46

A team of researchers has found a potential way to treat conditions like depression and anxiety with fewer side effects.

( If your TV spoke to you, would you buy it? Study finds people spend more on some 'talking products'
Feb 20th 2024, 14:44

New research used brain scanning technology to understand the effect of advertisements that try to sell products with talking versions of themselves. The work suggests that that anthromorphic displays lead to different cognition, and that buyers are likely to spend up to 20 percent more on more complex products promoted in advertisements that anthropomorphizes the product.

( Blocking key protein may halt progression of Alzheimer's disease
Feb 20th 2024, 14:44

Researchers have found that inhibiting a key protein can stop the destruction of synapses and dendritic spines commonly seen in Alzheimer's disease.

( Can a single brain region encode familiarity and recollection?
Feb 20th 2024, 14:43

The human brain has the extraordinary ability to rapidly discern a stranger from someone familiar, even as it can simultaneously remember details about someone across decades of encounters. Now, in mouse studies, scientists have revealed how the brain elegantly performs both tasks.

( Smiling is the secret to seeing happiness, new research reveals
Feb 20th 2024, 14:43

Smiling for just a split second makes people more likely to see happiness in expressionless faces, new research has revealed. The study shows that even a brief weak grin makes faces appear more joyful. The pioneering experiment used electrical stimulation to spark smiles and was inspired by photographs made famous by Charles Darwin.

( Stress during pregnancy can lead to early maturation of first-born daughters
Feb 20th 2024, 14:37

Researchers have found a correlation between early signs of adrenal puberty in first-born daughters and their mothers' having experienced high levels of prenatal stress. They did not find the same result in boys or daughters who were not first-born.

( The brain processes speech and its echo separately
Feb 15th 2024, 14:22

Echoes can make speech harder to understand, and tuning out echoes in an audio recording is a notoriously difficulty engineering problem. The human brain, however, appears to solve the problem successfully by separating the sound into direct speech and its echo, according to a new study.

( Exposure to Agent Orange damages brain tissue in ways similar to Alzheimer's disease
Feb 14th 2024, 20:33

Agent Orange, an herbicide used during the Vietnam War, is a known toxin with wide-ranging health effects. Even though Agent Orange has not been used for decades, there is increasing interest in its effects on the brain health of aging veterans. A new study reveals the mechanisms by which Agent Orange affects the brain and how those processes can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. The research shows that exposures to Agent Orange herbicidal chemicals damage frontal lobe brain tissue of laboratory rats with molecular and biochemical abnormalities that are similar to those found in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

( Live from the brain: Visual cues inform decision to cooperate
Feb 14th 2024, 20:33

By combining behavioral and wireless eye tracking and neural monitoring, a team of scientists studied how pairs of freely moving macaques interacting in a naturalistic setting use visual cues to guide complex, cooperative behavior.

( New algorithm disentangles intrinsic brain patterns from sensory inputs
Feb 14th 2024, 20:33

Scientists have developed a new machine learning method that reveals surprisingly consistent intrinsic brain patterns across different subjects by disentangling these patterns from the effect of visual inputs.

( Emojis are differently interpreted depending on gender, culture, and age of viewer
Feb 14th 2024, 15:02

Gender, culture, and age all appear to play a role in how emojis are interpreted, according to a new study.

( Neuronal insights: Flash and freeze-fracture
Feb 14th 2024, 12:26

Fear and addiction exert significant influence within society. Managing them is often challenging, as they are driven by intricate neuronal circuits in our brains. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms is crucial to intervene when these processes malfunction. The novel 'Flash and Freeze-fracture' technique provides a unique glimpse into the respective brain region.

( Oxytocin: the love hormone that holds the key to better memory
Feb 13th 2024, 13:04

Oxytocin, a naturally occurring chemical in the brain, plays a crucial role in various cognitive functions, including memory. A recent study revealed that the activation of neurons in the supramammillary nucleus of the mouse brain enhances performance in object recognition tasks. This discovery implies that specific oxytocin neurons play a pivotal role in modulating object recognition memory in mice.

Forwarded by:
Michael Reeder LCPC
Baltimore, MD

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