Science Daily Mind & Brain: All items

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Sat Mar 16 16:08:55 PDT 2024

Science Daily Mind & Brain


( How the brain translates motivation into goal-oriented behavior, according to new study
Mar 15th 2024, 16:08

Hunger can drive a motivational state that leads an animal to a successful pursuit of a goal -- foraging for and finding food. In a highly novel study, researchers describe how two major neuronal subpopulations in a part of the brain's thalamus called the paraventricular nucleus participate in the dynamic regulation of goal pursuits. This research provides insight into the mechanisms by which the brain tracks motivational states to shape instrumental actions.

( Study of long-term student engagement challenges 'one great teacher' narrative of education
Mar 14th 2024, 20:07

A positive relationship with a teacher at an early age may help children to feel more engaged with school, but not necessarily in the long term, new research shows. A new study of more than 3,600 young people in Australia shows that their 'school engagement' -- their interest in school and willingness to learn -- fluctuates between ages eight and 15, especially during the transition between primary and secondary education.

( FRYL gene variants linked to a new neurological disorder
Mar 14th 2024, 14:53

A recent study links the FRYL gene to a new neurodevelopmental disorder in humans. They used fruit flies to establish that the loss of a functional copy of the FRY-like transcription coactivator (FRYL) gene is the underlying cause of this new disorder in fourteen individuals.

( How fear unfolds inside our brains
Mar 14th 2024, 14:53

The stress-induced mechanisms that cause our brain to produce feelings of fear in the absence of threats -- such as in PTSD -- have been mostly a mystery. Now, neurobiologists have identified the changes in brain biochemistry and mapped the neural circuitry that cause generalized fear experiences.

( Information overload is a personal and societal danger
Mar 14th 2024, 12:22

We are all aware of the dangers of pollution to our air, water, and earth. In a recently published letter, scientists are advocating for the recognition and mitigation of another type of environmental pollution that poses equivalent personal and societal dangers: information overload.

( A healthier diet is linked with a slower pace of aging, reduced dementia risk, study shows
Mar 14th 2024, 12:21

A healthier diet is associated with a reduced dementia risk and slower pace of aging, according to a new study. The findings show that a diet-dementia association was at least partially facilitated by multi-system processes of aging. Until now, the biological mechanism of this protection was not well understood.

( Advanced army robots more likely to be blamed for deaths
Mar 14th 2024, 12:21

Advanced killer robots are more likely to blamed for civilian deaths than military machines, new research has revealed. The study shows that high-tech bots will be held more responsible for fatalities in identical incidents.

( Alzheimer's drug fermented with help from AI and bacteria moves closer to reality
Mar 14th 2024, 12:21

Researchers combined artificial intelligence and chemical biosensors to ferment the precursor of an Alzheimer's drug in bacteria.

( Sleep-wake rhythm: Fish change our understanding of sleep regulation
Mar 14th 2024, 12:21

Researchers have discovered that some fish -- unlike humans -- do not need orexin to stay awake. This molecule was thought to be necessary for normal wake and sleep rhythms in vertebrates. Humans without orexin suffer from narcolepsy.

( Even cells know the importance of recycling
Mar 14th 2024, 12:20

Researchers uncovered the mechanistic details behind how several proteins interact to help cells recognize and remove damaged mitochondria. Optineurin (OPTN) and its interactions are needed to provide a contact site for another protein, Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), during this process. The OPTN-TBK1 relationship is necessary for these mitochondria to be recognized and eliminated from the cell. This mechanism may have relevance for developing drugs to treat Parkinson's disease.

( Lonely 12 year-olds less likely to gain employment in adulthood
Mar 14th 2024, 12:15

New research has found that there is a direct socioeconomic impact of loneliness in early adolescence. The research found that lonely young adults are more likely to be out of education, employment, or training (NEET) and consider themselves less employable and lower on the economic ladder than their less lonely peers.

( Blast-related concussions linked to higher Alzheimer's risk
Mar 13th 2024, 21:02

U.S. veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq who suffered mild traumatic brain injury from exposure to explosive blasts were found to have changes in cerebrospinal fluid proteins that are typically seen in people who develop Alzheimer's disease, according to researchers.

( Do astronauts experience 'space headaches'?
Mar 13th 2024, 18:50

Space travel and zero gravity can take a toll on the body. A new study has found that astronauts with no prior history of headaches may experience migraine and tension-type headaches during long-haul space flight, which includes more than 10 days in space.

( Poor sleep linked to migraine attacks
Mar 13th 2024, 18:50

A new study has identified a link between poor sleep and migraine attacks that suggests improving sleep health may diminish migraine attacks in people with migraine.

( Interactions with dogs can increase brainwaves associated with stress relief and heightened concentration
Mar 13th 2024, 18:50

Spending quality time with dogs reduces stress and increases the power of brain waves associated with relaxation and concentration, according to a new study.

( Innovative approaches for addressing difficult topics in K-12 schools
Mar 13th 2024, 13:56

Three peer-reviewed journals have recently published research papers by Penn State's Hammel Family Human Rights Initiative. The papers illustrate how the initiative's programs help K-12 educators address difficult issues such as racism.

( New findings on the prevention of heart attacks and strokes
Mar 13th 2024, 13:56

Blockage of arterial blood vessels caused by atherosclerosis is largely responsible for heart attacks and strokes, which are the most common causes of death worldwide. The complex mechanisms that lead to pathological changes in the arteries are not yet fully understood. An international research team has now made important progress in understanding this disease and identified potential new approaches for early detection and therapy.

( Researchers identify brain connections associated with ADHD in youth
Mar 13th 2024, 13:55

Researchers have discovered that symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are tied to atypical interactions between the brain's frontal cortex and information processing centers deep in the brain. The researchers examined more than 10,000 functional brain images of youth with ADHD.

( Hope for treating sleep disorders, no pills required
Mar 13th 2024, 13:55

Are sleeping pills the only solution for insomnia? Not according to a researcher who says that using self-guided digital behavioral therapy is an alternative solution that should be considered.

( Genetic condition haemochromatosis linked to higher levels of disease in older people
Mar 13th 2024, 13:55

A largescale new study has found that some people whose genetics are linked to the common iron overload condition haemochromatosis have substantially greater levels of liver, musculoskeletal and brain disease than previously reported, especially at older ages.

( Integrity of blood-brain barrier depends on protein that is altered in some neurodegenerative diseases
Mar 13th 2024, 13:55

Defects in the blood vessel network of the central nervous system have been linked to early symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is this complex vascular network that provides the necessary nutrients -- especially glucose and oxygen -- to activate all neuronal functions. A new study reveals that the TDP-43 protein is essential for forming a stable and mature blood vessel network in the central nervous system.

( 'Dual-Target' cell therapy appears to shrink brain tumors, research finds
Mar 13th 2024, 13:55

Targeting two brain tumor-associated proteins -- rather than one -- with CAR T cell therapy shows promise as a strategy for reducing solid tumor growth in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive form of brain cancer, according to early results from a clinical trial.

( Multiple air pollutants linked to asthma symptoms in children
Mar 13th 2024, 13:55

Exposure to several combinations of toxic atmospheric pollutants may be triggering asthma symptoms among children, a recent analysis suggests. The study showed that 25 different combinations of air pollutants were associated with asthma symptoms among 269 elementary school children diagnosed with asthma.

( New study reveals unintended ethical faultline in team-based reward systems
Mar 13th 2024, 13:54

Employers who have introduced team-based rewards systems to foster creativity, collaboration, productivity and sales may want to look again at a system that new research shows can create an unintended, insidious side-effect. Compared to employees who are individually rewarded, workers in team-based reward systems are more likely to remain silent when they observe a fellow team member engaging in unethical behaviour, according to a new study.

( Middle-age obesity is caused by changes in the shape of neurons in the brain
Mar 13th 2024, 13:54

Researchers discovered a mechanism behind middle-age obesity in rat brains. They believe that a similar mechanism exists in humans as well. This discovery may lead to improvements in preventing obesity and metabolic syndrome.

( Study tracks shifts in student mental health during college
Mar 13th 2024, 13:54

Dartmouth researchers tracked more than 200 undergraduates for all four years of college to capture the most in-depth data yet on how students' self-esteem and mental health fluctuates during their years in academia. The researchers identify key populations and stressors they say administrators could target to improve student well-being. The study -- conducted from 2017 to 2022 -- also provides among the first real-time accounts of how the coronavirus pandemic affected students and resulted in long-lasting behavioral changes that persisted even as the pandemic diminished.

( RNA-based therapy shows promise against aggressive childhood brain tumors in mice
Mar 13th 2024, 13:54

Targeting a non-encoding stretch of RNA may help shrink tumors caused by an aggressive type of brain cancer in children, according to new research in mice.

( First recognition of self in the mirror is spurred by touch
Mar 13th 2024, 13:53

Most babies begin recognizing themselves in mirrors when they are about a-year-and-a-half old. This kind of self-recognition is an important developmental milestone, and now scientists have discovered a key driver for it: experiences of touch.

( Explicit socioemotional learning can have a key role in PE lessons, study says
Mar 13th 2024, 13:53

Teachers might be more motivated to help students engage with their emotions and build their resilience when this work is part of lessons, rather than as an add-on intervention, a new study has found.

( Study: Best way to memorize stuff? It depends...
Mar 12th 2024, 18:27

Recent experiments by psychologists shed new light on how we learn and how we remember our real-world experiences. In two experiments, researchers asked participants to repeatedly study pairs of items and scenes that were either identical on each repetition or in which the item stayed the same but the scene changed each time. Researchers found that spaced learning benefited item memory, but they also found that memory was better for the items that had been paired with different scenes compared with those shown with the same scene each time. For example, if you want to remember a new person's name, repeating the name but associating it with different information about the person can actually be helpful.

( Researchers identify distinct sleep types and their impact on long-term health
Mar 12th 2024, 13:39

Poor sleep habits are strongly associated with long-term chronic health conditions, according to decades of research. To better understand this relationship, a team identified four distinct patterns that characterize how most people sleep. These patterns are also predictive of long-term health, the researchers said.

( Guessing game: Response may bias understanding of future scenarios
Mar 12th 2024, 13:38

Does previous experience bias a person in future estimations? Yes, researchers report, but only if the person engages their higher processing powers by responding, as opposed to simply observing.

( The surprising effect of presence hallucinations on social perception
Mar 12th 2024, 13:38

Neuroscientists have devised a way to alter our social perception and monitor specific types of hallucinations, both in healthy individuals and patients with Parkinson's disease. The test, which is also available online, provides the medical community with a tool to monitor hallucination susceptibility.

( When a team is less than the sum of its parts: Tensions between individual and team wellbeing
Mar 12th 2024, 13:38

Individual wellbeing doesn't always add up to team wellbeing -- but reflection and open communication can help.

( 'Curved' walking and a depth camera: New tool detects early cognitive decline
Mar 12th 2024, 13:38

Gait impairments often are prevalent in the early stages of cognitive decline. Researchers quantitatively compared straight walking and curved walking -- a more natural yet complex activity -- in healthy older adults and adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A depth camera detected and tracked 25 joints of body movement and signals were processed to extract 50 gait markers. Intriguingly, curved walking illuminated notable disparities between the study groups. The non-invasive, low-cost, non-wearable and easy-setting depth camera system is a crucial step in enhancing patient care and intervention strategies.

( Researchers expand our understanding of how the body and brain communicate
Mar 12th 2024, 13:37

Researchers investigating how exactly the brain processes the incoming stream of information from the heart and lungs, discovered that specific neurons in the thalamus are actively involved in processing cardiac and respiratory signals.

( Delta-8-THC use reported by 11% of 12th graders in 2023
Mar 12th 2024, 13:37

Approximately 11% of 12th-grade students across the United States reported past-year use of delta-8- tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC, or delta-8 for short), according to an analysis of data from the 2023 Monitoring the Future survey. Delta-8 is a psychoactive substance that is typically derived from hemp, a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant. Delta-8 has intoxicating effects similar to delta-9-THC (delta-9), the primary THC component responsible for the 'high' people may experience from using cannabis.

( For people who speak many languages, there's something special about their native tongue
Mar 11th 2024, 14:59

A study of polyglots found the brain's language network responds more strongly when hearing languages a speaker is more proficient in -- and much more weakly to the speaker's native language.

( Dangers of smell impairment highlighted in new research
Mar 11th 2024, 14:59

More than a third of people who self-identify as having a smell disorder have had at least one gas safety scare in the last five years, according to new research.

( Researchers uncover protein responsible for cold sensation
Mar 11th 2024, 14:59

Researchers have identified the protein that enables mammals to sense cold, filling a long-standing knowledge gap in the field of sensory biology.

( Happiness can be learnt, but you have to work at it
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

We can learn to be happy, but only get lasting benefits if we keep practicing, a new study has revealed.

( In our cellular 'glue,' scientists find answers about heart attacks, strokes, more
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

Doctors may be able to leverage the new insights to identify patients at greatest risk of having atherosclerotic plaques break free and cause heart attacks or strokes.

( Researchers identify gene involved in neuronal vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

Early stages of neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of proteins in discrete populations of brain cells and degeneration of these cells. For most diseases, this selective vulnerability pattern is unexplained, yet it could yield major insight into pathological mechanisms.

( AI may predict spread of lung cancer to brain
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

Scientists trained a machine-learning algorithm to predict accurately brain metastasis using biopsy samples from early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. It was also highly accurate in predicting those patients who do not develop metastatic brain tumors.

( No, an anti-racist program in schools didn't stress out kids, study finds
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

A new study of how high school students respond to a program designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about race in school finds that the anti-racist intervention did not cause stress or feelings of alienation among study participants. The finding rebuts concerns that anti-racist programs are harmful to children and teens.

( Adding folic acid to table salt could prevent life-threatening birth defects
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

A team of international researchers has demonstrated, for the first time in a field study, that using folic acid-fortified iodized table salt can prevent multiple severe birth defects.

( Anemonefish are better taxonomists than humans
Mar 11th 2024, 14:58

Scientists reveal new lineages of giant sea anemones in Japan and their surprising associations with anemonefish.

( Wrist device that monitors activity could help provide early warning of Alzheimer's
Mar 11th 2024, 14:57

Monitoring daily activity patterns using a wrist-worn device may detect early warning signs of Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study.

( AI-generated food images look tastier than real ones
Mar 11th 2024, 14:57

Researchers have announced an intriguing discovery -- consumers generally prefer AI-generated images of food over real food images, especially when they are unaware of their true nature.

( 'Study drugs' set the stage for other drug use and mental health decline
Mar 11th 2024, 14:57

Taking 'study drugs' like Adderall without a diagnosis is not only dangerous in itself, but can lead to other drug use and a decline in mental health, according to new research.

( Shared blueprint in brain development across different functional areas
Mar 11th 2024, 14:57

Researchers have investigated brain development to understand how different areas of the brain become specialized in handling information such as vision, sound, touch and planning.

( Blood-based marker developed to identify sleep deprivation
Mar 10th 2024, 19:48

A blood test that can accurately detect when someone has not slept for 24 hours has been developed.

( Small class sizes not better for pupils' grades or resilience, says study
Mar 8th 2024, 12:33

Smaller class sizes in schools are failing to increase the resilience of children from low-income families, according to a new study.

( Brain waves travel in one direction when memories are made and the opposite when recalled
Mar 8th 2024, 12:33

These wide-ranging waves quickly link the specific constellations of brain regions that work in harmony to perform a task.

( Zika virus vaccine emerges as an unlikely hero in battling brain cancer
Mar 8th 2024, 12:33

Scientists have developed a new approach using the Zika virus to destroy brain cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth, while sparing healthy cells.

( Lack of focus doesn't equal lack of intelligence -- it's proof of an intricate brain
Mar 8th 2024, 12:29

Imagine a busy restaurant: dishes clattering, music playing, people talking loudly over one another. It's a wonder that anyone in that kind of environment can focus enough to have a conversation. A new study provides some of the most detailed insights yet into the brain mechanisms that help people pay attention amid such distraction, as well as what's happening when they can't focus.

( COVID vaccines are safe for pregnant women and babies, study finds
Mar 7th 2024, 16:51

The COVID vaccine is safe to administer during pregnancy, researchers report in an important finding on the safety of the vaccine in infants -- despite widespread fear and misinformation.

( How the brain coordinates speaking and breathing
Mar 7th 2024, 16:51

Researchers discovered a brain circuit that drives vocalization and ensures that you talk only when you breathe out, and stop talking when you breathe in. This circuit is under control of a brainstem region called the pre-B tzinger complex.

( Method rapidly verifies that a robot will avoid collisions
Mar 7th 2024, 16:50

A new safety-check technique can prove with 100 percent accuracy that a planned robot motion will not result in a collision. The method can generate a proof in seconds and does so in a way that can be easily verified by a human.

( Doctors can now watch spinal cord activity during surgery
Mar 7th 2024, 11:07

Scientists can make high resolution images of the human spinal cord during surgery. The advancement could help bring real relief to millions suffering chronic back pain.

Forwarded by:
Michael Reeder LCPC
Baltimore, MD

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